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ECN publicatie:
The Dutch nitrogen cascade in the European perspective
Domburg, P.; Erisman, J.W.; Haan, B. de; Kros, J.; Vries, W. de; Velthof, G.; Sanders, K.
Gepubliceerd door: Publicatie datum:
ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek 1-1-2005
ECN publicatienummer: Publicatie type:
ECN-C--05-007 ECN rapport
Aantal pagina's: Volledige tekst:
109 Download PDF  (4987kB)

The Netherlands is ?well known? for its nitrogen problems; it has one of the highest reactive nitrogen (Nr) emission densities in the world. It is a small country at the delta of several large European rivers. Ever since the industrial revolution, there has been a growing excess of nutrients and related emissions into the atmosphere (ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide) and into groundwater and surface water (nitrate), leading to a large range of cascading environmental impacts. Vehicular traffic, sewage and animal husbandry are the main sources of oxidized and reduced forms of Nr. This report provides an overview of the origin and fate of nitrogen in the Netherlands, the various reported impacts of nitrogen and the Dutch and European policies to reduce nitrogen emissions and related impacts. In addition, ways are presented to go forward to potentially solve the problems in a European perspective. Solutions include the improvement of nitrogen efficiencies in different systems, technological options and education.

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